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Citation Help

Footnotes, references, bibliographies, avoiding plagiarism & more.

Reference List Format


Peer reviewed journal:

Holehan, A. M., and B. J. Merry. 1985. Modification of the oestrous cycle hormonal profile by dietary restriction. Mech. Ageing Dev. 32:63–76. doi:10.1016/0047-6374(85)90036-3.

Johnston, S. L., T. Grune, L. M. Bell, S. J. Murray, D. M. Souter, S. S. Erwin, J. M. Yearsley, I. J. Gordon, A. W. Illius, I. Kyriazakis, et al.  2006. Having it all: historical energy intakes do not generate the anticipated trade-offs in fecundity. Proc. Biol. Sci. 273: 1369–1374. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3456.

Chapter in an edited book: 

Bidanel, J. P. 2011. Biology and genetics of reproduction. In: Rothschild, M.F. and A. Ruvinsky, editors, The genetics of the pig, 2nd ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; p. 218–241.

Conference proceeding:

McCaw, M. B., M. Turner, S. Jones, and K. Gambino. 1999. Maximization of farrowing house production. Proceedings of the North Carolina Healthy Hogs Seminar. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Swine Veterinary Group, North Carolina State University.

In-Text References

In-text references or citations are used to acknowledge the work or ideas of others. They are placed next to the text that you have paraphrased or quoted, enabling the reader to differentiate between your writing and other people's work. The full details of your in-text references must be included in a reference list.


Energy restriction without limiting other essential nutrients has been shown to increase lifespan (Merry and Holehan, 2002) without compromising reproductive performance (Johnston et al., 2006) in several species.

When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation:


Lean growth rates, feed intake, efficiency data, and rates of pubertal development of these gilts are described by Miller et al. (2011).